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November die Residenz wieder nach Bukarest. Im Jahr kam es nochmals zu einer Residenzverlegung. Zu dieser Zeit bestanden etwa Kirchen.

Zugleich begann in der Stadt eine erste industrielle Entwicklung durch Manufakturen. Oktober , begleitet von einer rund tausend Mann starken Armee, aus der Stadt floh.

August wieder herausgegeben. Nachfolgend trafen in der Zeit von bis verschiedene Naturkatastrophen, eine Feuersbrunst und Epidemien die Stadt. Der erste Friede von Bukarest beendete am Mai den seit anhaltenden Krieg [23] zwischen Russland und dem Osmanischen Reich.

Es kam zur Neufestlegung der Stadtgrenzen. September am Spirei-Berg blutig niedergeschlagen. Ein Denkmal erinnert an dieser Stelle an das Ereignis.

Die Versammlung verabschiedete am 9. Alexandru Ioan Cuza proklamierte am Mai in Bukarest ein. In der Folge proklamierte sich am Bukarest wurde dabei zur imperialen Stadt umgestaltet.

Gegen Ende des In dieser Zeit wurde auch die neue Verkehrsader von Obor nach Cotroceni freigegeben. Dezember als Folge der Schlacht am Argesch bis zum Friedensvertrag vom 7.

Mai durch deutsche Truppen besetzt. Kurz danach zog die Wehrmacht in Bukarest ein. Januar in einem Pogrom [32] mindestens Bukarester Juden , die meisten von ihnen in einem Wald nahe Jilava.

Ab April kam Bukarest in die Reichweite der amerikanischen und britischen Luftwaffe. Dabei wurden Tonnen Bomben abgeworfen. Auch der Hauptbahnhof Gara de Nord wurde bombardiert.

Ein Teil der Bomben fiel durch starke Winde in Wohngebiete. Dabei gab es viele zivile Opfer. Die Angaben zu den Opfern variieren zwischen und Toten, wobei die Anzahl von Toten und Verletzten als offizielle Zahl genannt wird.

August mit den Alliierten. Es kamen dabei Personen ums Leben. Nach dem Einmarsch der Roten Armee in Bukarest am August kam es am In diesem Zusammenhang kam es am 8.

Vor allem in den peripheren Bereichen wurde Bukarest zu einer riesigen Baustelle. Juli stattfindenden Konferenz des Warschauer Paktes verabschiedet wurde.

An ihre Stelle traten neue Symbole monumentaler Machtdemonstration. Kern und dominierendes Element ist der Parlamentspalast , mit dessen Bau ca. Dieser erreichte am Allein in Bukarest gab es rund Tote.

Nach dem Aufstand stellte sich heraus, dass in Bukarest einige Bunkersysteme und Tunnel [46] bestehen, manche davon stammen aus dem Mittelalter.

Gipfel der Internationalen Organisation der Frankophonie statt. Vier Tage nach seinem Tod erfolgte am 3. August seine Beisetzung in der Patriarchenkirche.

In der Zeit vom 2. April war die Stadt Gastgeber des XX. Ende Oktober ereignete sich eine Brandkatastrophe in Bukarest.

Die Einwohnerzahl der Stadt stieg seit bis zum Jahr kontinuierlich an. Daniel Ciobotea , der als sechster Patriarch seit im Amt ist. Das Erzbistum Bukarest entstand am Bukarest besitzt zwei Verwaltungsebenen.

Das Stadtwappen von Bukarest wurde im Jahrhunderts, der orientalische und italienische Baumotive in sich vereinigt. The Ottomans appointed Greek administrators Phanariotes to run the town from the 18th century.

A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest.

Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. It was placed under Russian administration between and the Crimean War , with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred Wallachian revolution.

Later, an Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure remaining in the city until March On 23 March , a fire consumed about 2, buildings, destroying a third of the city.

In , it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. During this period, gas lighting , horse-drawn trams , and limited electrification were introduced.

On 23 August , Bucharest was the site of the royal coup which brought Romania into the Allied camp. The city suffered a short period of Nazi Luftwaffe bombings, as well as a failed attempt by German troops to regain the city.

After the establishment of communism in Romania , the city continued growing. New districts were constructed, most of them dominated by tower blocks.

Dissatisfied with the postrevolutionary leadership of the National Salvation Front , some student leagues and opposition groups organized anti-Communist rallies in early , which caused the political change.

Since , the city has been continuously modernized and is still undergoing urban renewal. In , Bucharest experienced drama, 64 people were killed in the Colectiv nightclub fire.

Later the Romanian capital saw the — Romanian protests against the judicial reforms. These gardens have a rich history, having been frequented by poets and writers.

Opened in and based on the plans of German architect Carl F. Meyer, the gardens are the main recreational facility in the city centre.

The Botanical Garden, located in the Cotroceni neighborhood a bit west of the city centre, is the largest of its kind in Romania and contains over 10, species of plants many of them exotic ; it originated as the pleasure park of the royal family.

Over hectares, including 90 hectares of water, host 97 species of birds, half of them protected by law, and at least seven species of mammals.

After demolishing the houses and building the concrete basin, the plan was abandoned following the revolution. The redevelopment deal failed, [29] and over the following years, the green space grew into a unique habitat.

As with many cities, Bucharest is traditionally considered to be built upon seven hills, similar to the seven hills of Rome.

The altitude varies from Until recently, the regions surrounding Bucharest were largely rural, but after , suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the surrounding Ilfov County.

Further urban consolidation is expected to take place in the late s, when the "Bucharest Metropolitan Area" plan will become operational, incorporating additional communes and cities from the Ilfov and other neighbouring counties.

Bucharest has a humid continental climate Dfa , with warm to hot, humid summers and cold, snowy winters. Although average precipitation and humidity during summer are low, occasional heavy storms occur.

Bucharest has a unique status in Romanian administration, since it is the only municipal area that is not part of a county. The Bucharest-Ilfov development region is not, however, an administrative entity yet.

The city government is headed by a general mayor Primar General. Furthermore, the city is divided into six administrative sectors sectoare , each of which has its own seat sectoral council, town hall, and mayor.

The powers of the local government over a certain area are, therefore, shared both by the Bucharest municipality and the local sectoral councils with little or no overlapping of authority.

The general rule is that the main capital municipality is responsible for citywide utilities such as the water and sewage system, the overall transport system, and the main boulevards, while sectoral town halls manage the contact between individuals and the local government, secondary streets and parks maintenance, schools administration, and cleaning services.

The six sectors are numbered from one to six and are disposed radially so that each one has under its administration a certain area of the city centre.

They are numbered clockwise and are further divided into sectoral quarters cartiere which are not part of the official administrative division:. Each sector is governed by a local mayor, as follows: The prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party and his role is to represent the national government at the municipal level.

The prefect is acting as a liaison official facilitating the implementation of national development plans and governing programs at local level.

The prefect of Bucharest as of [update] is Paul Nicolae Petrovan. Bucharest also houses the general inspectorates of the Gendarmerie and the national police.

Confidence tricks were common in the s, especially in regards to tourists, but the frequency of these incidents has since declined.

However, in general, theft was reduced by Although the presence of street children was a problem in Bucharest in the s, their numbers have declined in recent years, now lying at or below the average of major European capital cities.

As stated by the Mercer international surveys for quality of life in cities around the world, Bucharest occupied the 94th place in [42] and slipped lower, to the th place in and the th place in Compared to it, Vienna occupied number one worldwide in and Mercer collects data worldwide, in cities.

The difficult situation of the quality of life in Bucharest is confirmed also by a vast urbanism study, done by the Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism.

Kiseleff road , as seen from above. As per the census , 1,, inhabitants lived within the city limits, a decrease from the figure recorded at the census.

In a study published by the United Nations, Bucharest placed 19th in among 28 cities that recorded sharp declines in population from to the mids.

In particular, the population fell by 3. A significant number of people commute to the city every day, mostly from the surrounding Ilfov County, but official statistics regarding their numbers do not exist.

Bucharest is a city of high population density: However, this also depends on the part of the city: Of the European Union country capital-cities, only Paris and Athens have a higher population density see List of European Union cities proper by population density.

One of the predominantly Greek neighborhoods was Vitan — where a Jewish population also lived with a population of 69, In terms of religious affiliation, Female life expectancy was In January , Bucharest had an unemployment rate of 2.

The headquarters of , firms, including nearly all large Romanian companies, are located in Bucharest. The city is undergoing a retail boom, with supermarkets and hypermarkets opened every year see supermarkets in Romania.

Traditional retail arcades and markets include the one at Obor. Office buildings on Nicolae Titulescu Street. In addition, a private minibus system operates there.

As of [update] , a limit of 10, taxicab licenses was imposed. The main railway station is Gara de Nord "North Station" , which provides connections to all major cities in Romania, as well as international destinations: These are in the process of being integrated into a commuter railway serving Bucharest and the surrounding Ilfov County.

Seven main lines radiate out of Bucharest. The oldest station in Bucharest is Filaret. It was inaugurated in , and in , the communist government turned it in a bus terminal.

Bucharest has two international airports:. A series of high-capacity boulevards, which generally radiate out from the city centre to the outskirts, provides a framework for the municipal road system.

The main axes, which run north-south, east-west and northwest-southeast, as well as one internal and one external ring road, support the bulk of the traffic.

In , the number of cars registered in Bucharest amounted to 1,, A comprehensive effort on behalf of the City Hall to boost road infrastructure was made, and according to the general development plan, 2, roads have been repaired by On 17 June , the Basarab Overpass was inaugurated and opened to traffic, thus completing the inner city traffic ring.

The overpass took five years to build and is the longest cable-stayed bridge in Romania and the widest such bridge in Europe; [69] upon completion, traffic on the Grant Bridge and in the Gara de Nord area became noticeably more fluid.

Victory Avenue Calea Victoriei , a major avenue in central Bucharest. Union Boulevard Bulevardul Unirii , one of the most transited road arteries of the city.

Works on the canal were suspended in , but proposals have been made to resume construction as part of the European Strategy for the Danube Region.

Bucharest has a growing cultural scene, in fields including the visual arts, performing arts, and nightlife. Bucharest has landmark buildings and monuments.

The building boasts one of the largest convention centres in the world. A newer landmark of the city is the Memorial of Rebirth , a stylized marble pillar unveiled in to commemorate the victims of the Romanian Revolution of , which overthrew Communism.

The Romanian Athenaeum building is considered to be a symbol of Romanian culture and since is on the list of the Label of European Heritage sites.

InterContinental Bucharest is a high-rise five-star hotel situated near University Square and is also a landmark of the city.

The building is designed so that each room has a unique panorama of the city. This edifice built in the characteristic style of the large-scale Soviet projects, was intended to be representative to the new political regime and to assert the superiority of the Communist doctrine.

The Palace of the Parliament , one of the largest architectural structures in the world and the largest assembly structure globally. National Library of Romania.

In terms of visual arts , the city has museums featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international works. Other, smaller, museums contain specialised collections.

The Zambaccian Museum , which is situated in the former home of art collector Krikor H. Another impressive art collection gathering important Romanian painters, can be found at the Ligia and Pompiliu Macovei residence, which is open to visitors as it is now part of the Bucharest Museum patrimony.

The Theodor Pallady Museum is situated in one of the oldest surviving merchant houses in Bucharest and includes works by Romanian painter Theodor Pallady , as well as European and oriental furniture pieces.

Despite the classical art galleries and museums in the city, a contemporary arts scene also exists. Private art galleries are scattered throughout the city centre.

The palace of the National Bank of Romania houses the national numismatic collection. Exhibits include banknotes, coins, documents, photographs, maps, silver and gold bullion bars, bullion coins, and dies and moulds.

The building was constructed between and The thesaurus room contains notable marble decorations. National Bank of Romania. National Museum of Art of Romania.

Museum of Art Collections. Performing arts are some of the strongest cultural elements of Bucharest. The most famous symphony orchestra is National Radio Orchestra of Romania.

One of the most prominent buildings is the neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum , which was founded in , and hosts classical music concerts, the George Enescu Festival , and is home to the George Enescu Philharmonic Orchestra.

Bucharest is home to the Romanian National Opera and the I. Another well-known theatre in Bucharest is the State Jewish Theatre , which features plays starring world-renowned Romanian-Jewish actress Maia Morgenstern.

Hip-hop bands and artists from Bucharest such as B. With no central nightlife strip, entertainment venues are dispersed throughout the city, with clusters in Lipscani and Regie.

A number of cultural festivals are held in Bucharest throughout the year, but most festivals take place in June, July, and August. The National Opera organises the International Opera Festival every year in May and June, which includes ensembles and orchestras from all over the world.

The Romanian Athaeneum Society hosts the George Enescu Festival at locations throughout the city in September every two years odd years.

The Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Village Museum organise events throughout the year, showcasing Romanian folk arts and crafts.

In the s, due to the growing prominence of the Chinese community in Bucharest, Chinese cultural events took place.

In , Bucharest was the first city in Southeastern Europe to host the international CowParade , which resulted in dozens of decorated cow sculptures being placed across the city.

In , Bucharest imposed in the circle of important festivals in Eastern Europe with the Bucharest International Film Festival, an event widely acknowledged in Europe, having as guests of honor famous names from the world cinema: Since , Bucharest has its own contemporary art biennale , the Bucharest Biennale.

Traditional Romanian culture continues to have a major influence in arts such as theatre, film, and music.

Patronized by the Ministry of Culture, the museum preserves and exhibits numerous collections of objects and monuments of material and spiritual culture.

The Museum of the Romanian Peasant holds one of the richest collections of peasant objects in Romania, its heritage being nearly 90, pieces, those being divided into several collections: The Museum of Romanian History is another important museum in Bucharest, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian history and culture from the prehistoric times, Dacian era, medieval times, and the modern era.

Bucharest is the seat of the Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church , one of the Eastern Orthodox churches in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople , and also of its subdivisions, the Metropolis of Muntenia and Dobrudja and the Archbishopric of Bucharest.

Orthodox believers consider Demetrius Basarabov to be the patron saint of the city. The latter was converted into the Museum of the History of the Romanian Jewish Community, while the Great Synagogue and the Choral Temple are both active and hold regular services.

Later the project was abandoned. Palace of the Patriarchate. Recently built contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings complete the landscape.

Some medieval and renaissance edifices remain, the most notable are in the Lipscani area. From the s onwards, the area went through urban decline, and many historical buildings fell into disrepair.

To execute a massive redevelopment project during the rule of Nicolae Ceausescu, the government conducted extensive demolition of churches and many other historic structures in Romania.

According to Alexandru Budistenu, former chief architect of Bucharest, "The sight of a church bothered Ceausescu. The city centre has retained architecture from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly the interwar period , which is often seen as the "golden age" of Bucharest architecture.

During this time, the city grew in size and wealth, therefore seeking to emulate other large European capitals such as Paris.

In Romania, the tendencies of innovation in the architectural language met the need of valorisation and affirmation of the national cultural identity.

In the s, historic buildings in the city centre underwent restoration. In some residential areas of the city, particularly in high-income central and northern districts, turn-of-theth-century villas were mostly restored beginning in the late s.

National Military Circle Romanian: National Museum of History Romanian: French Baroque style — Cantacuzino Palace. Headquarters of the Romanian Commercial Bank Romanian: The mass demolitions that occurred in the s, under which an overall area of eight square kilometres of the historic center of Bucharest were leveled, including monasteries, churches, synagogues, a hospital, and a noted Art Deco sports stadium, changed drastically the appearance of the city.

Initially, these apartment blocks started to be constructed in the s, on relatively empty areas and fields good examples include Pajura, Drumul Taberei, Berceni and Titan , however with the s, they mostly targeted peripheral neighborhoods such as Colentina, Pantelimon, Militari and Rahova.

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